I’ve written already about the tasks that I use to develop semantic skills and phonological skills. In these pieces I’ve gone on at great length about how I don’t think there is such a thing for us to target as ‘auditory memory’ per se. This is because it is my view that ‘limited auditory memory’ is just another way of saying ‘impoverished semantic and phonological knowledge’. There is however one further skill that I do develop to support children’s language processing though, and that is visualisation.
Using visual imagery to anchor interpretation isn’t the be-all and end-all of verbal comprehension, but it is a good place to start. Higher-order abilities depend on it. By higher-order abilities, I mean the ability to struggle on, and to draw some kind of interpretation, where the context is only vaguely understood, where nouns and verbs are not familiar to the child, and where possible interpretations are forced into a duel, to be scrubbed and absorbed into the growing proposition. A proposition which needs to embody stability and fuzziness in equal measures, and which is somehow able to snap into a new shape upon the turn of a word or the flicker of a grin.
Back at the most basic level though, some of the children I work with have not learned the art of combining ideas that they hear together into a coherent whole. Descriptions and instructions just become a salad of ideas to them. Language goes ‘in one ear and out the other’. Working on visualisation teaches them to build their interpretations on something concrete, not on sand.
I use elements of a very clever programme called Visualizing and Verbalizing for this work.
The Visualizing and Verbalizing® (V/V®) program develops concept imagery—the ability to create an imagined or imaged gestalt from language—as a basis for comprehension and higher order thinking.
This material is difficult to come by in the UK, and postage is prohibitively expensive. I came across one of the ‘stories’ books in a clinic I used to work in, and loved it. I recently got to buy my own copy of Visualizing and Verbalizing Stories 2, for £15 plus £11 delivery from Abebooks. Compared with what’s available at the moment, that was a bit of a bargain. It’s worth keeping an eye open though.
The book has an impressive 108 stories which range from stories of 4 short sentences designed for preschool children, up to stories composed of three fairly long paragraphs designed for children in year 8. Each story is followed by five questions which probe the child’s ability to extract detail, to give the main idea, to infer, to draw conclusions and to make predictions. The stories are rich in colour and movement, and this, along with the gradual progression in complexity through the book, helps the child develop a strategy for listening that is as effective as it is simple. The scenarios all have very well thought through intentions, consequences, humour and feelings for the child to mull over, alongside the literal comprehension element.
I can’t recommend V/V enough. Hopefully the publishers won’t mind me including an example of a story from the lowest level of complexity to give you an idea of how the stories and questions work:
The little yellow fish swam slowly in the water. Then he darted into a small cave. A big red fish swam by the cave. Soon the little fish swam out.
- What colour did you picture the big fish?
- Why do you think the little fish darted into the small cave?
- How do you thik the little fish felt when he saw the big fish?
- What might the little fish do if the big fish comes back?
- What is the main idea of all these images?